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IDENTIFICATION  OF MA.EJt-BAl?  WITH  CLISOBGRA.                      279

bora, given by Arrian and Pliny as the name of the town between which and
Mathum the Jamana flowed—Amnia Jomanes in friw/m per Pali'totJiros decur-
Tit inter oppida MetJiora et Clisobora, Pliny, Hist. Xat. vi.y 22—it may he con-
cluded with certainty that Maha-ban is the site intended.* Its other literary
names are Brihad-vana, Brihad-aranya, G-okala, and Nandagrama ; and no one
of these, it is true, in the-slightest resembles the word Clisobora-. But this
might well be a corruption of £ Krishna- pura/ * the city of Krishna/ a term used
by the speaker as a descriptive title—and it would be a highly appropriate one
—but taken by the foreign traveller for the ordinary proper name of the place.
Colonel Tod thought Ciisobora might be Bafesar, and most subsequent English
topographers seem to have blindly accepted the suggestion. There is5 however,
really no foundation for it beyond the surmise that Clisobora and Mathnra were
quoted as the two principal towns in the country, and that Batesar must have
been a place of importance; because its older name was derived from the Surasen,
after whom the whole people were called SaurasenL General Cunningham, in
Ms f Ancient Geography.,5 has thrown out a new theory and identifies Clisobora
(read in one MS. as Cyrisoborka) with Brinda-ban, assuming that Kalikavartta,
or *Ka!Ika?s Whirlpool/ was an earlier name of the to\vn? in allusion to Krish-
na's combat with the serpent Kalika. But in the iirst place, the Jamuna does
not flow between Mathnra and Brinda-ban? seeing that both are on the same
bank; secondly, the ordinary name of the great serpent is not Kulika, but
Kaliya; and thirdly, it does not appear upon what authority it is stated that
a the earlier name of the place was Kalikavartta." Upon this latter point, a
reference was made to the great Brinda-ban Pandit, Swami Rang4ch&rya, who^
if any one; might be expected to speak with positive knowledge, and his reply
was that in the course of all his reading, he had never met with Brinda-ban
tinder any other name than that which it now bears.

The   glories  of  Malia-ban  are  told  in a   special (interpolated) section
of  the   Brahmanda  Parana,   called the  Brihad-vana  3Ia!uitmya.    In  this,

The parallel passage in Arrian's India is as folluwt: — TOVTOV rav HpaK\ga
Qv/iacn}{s£ii> yc/aafaffffat, Ivf/xoi' i'^vpast      5i'o TidK/ts /rJF^tfAci; MzBopd ~e
jatt Ickziffo^o^t kdi vorauds, Iwjsdpms ~\wro£3£a"p/>ei TJV x.ui&jw ztrrseV.   As
both authors seem to be quoting from the same original, the insertion of the worJs per
Polifeliro* in Pliny must be due to an error on the pan ot some copv 1st, misled by the frequent
jnentioi of FaUbofchra in the preceding paragraphs. The mistake cannot be credited to Pliaj
hiinaeif, "who Uses the site of Pallboifara as 415 miles to the east of the CGafittaaee of the Gauges
sad the Jamaai. The gods •whom Arrian proceeds to describe under the mma of Di«syaGS
and Hercul^ correspond dosely with Krishna and Batatam*, wk> arc Mill tbe local di?iwiie&